Glossary - I

All terms beginning with the letter 'I' are shown below:

 Isomorphism: A vector stransformation T : V ↦ W that is both one-to-one and onto is said to be an isomorphism, and W is said to be isomorphic to V, which is abbreviated as V ≌ W. Afﬁne combination: A linear combination of vectors (points in Rn ) in which the sum of the weights involved is 1. Afﬁne dependence relation: An equation of the form c1 v1 C ! ! ! C cp vp D 0, where the weights c1 ; : : : ; cp are not all zero, and c1 C ! ! ! C cp D 0. Afﬁne hull (or afﬁne span) of a set S: The set of all afﬁne combinations of points in S , denoted by aff S. Afﬁnely dependent set: A set fv1 ; : : : ; vp g in Rn such that there are real numbers c1 ; : : : ; cp , not all zero, such that c1 C ! ! ! C cp D 0 and c1 v1 C ! ! ! C cp vp D 0. Afﬁnely independent set: A set fv1 ; : : : ; vp g in Rn that is not afﬁnely dependent. Afﬁne set (or afﬁne subset): A set S of points such that if p and q are in S , then .1 " t/p C t q 2 S for each real number t. Afﬁne transformation: A mapping T W Rn ! Rm of the form T .x/ D Ax C b, with A an m # n matrix and b in Rm. Algebraic multiplicity: The multiplicity of an eigenvalue as a root of the characteristic equation. Angle (between nonzero vectors u and v in R2 or R3/: The angle # between the two directed line segments from the origin to the points u and v. Related to the scalar product by u ! v D kuk kvk cos # Associative law of multiplication: A.BC/ D .AB/C , for all A, B, C. attractor (of a dynamical system in R2): The origin when all trajectories tend toward 0. Augmented matrix: A matrix made up of a coefﬁcient matrix for a linear system and one or more columns to the right. Each extra column contains the constants from the right side of a system with the given coefﬁcient matrix. Auxiliary equation: A polynomial equation in a variable r, created from the coefﬁcients of a homogeneous difference equation.